Article Summaries

Ultrasound- Guided Minimally Invasive Grinding for Clearing Blood Clots: Promises and Challenges

Dalia Mahdy, Romez Reda, Nabila Hamdi, and Islam S. M. Khalil


Mechanical removal of blood clots is a promising approach towards the treatment of vascular diseases caused by pathological clot formation in the circulatory system. These clots can form and travel to deep seated regions in the circulatory system and result in significant problems as blood flow past the clot is obstructed. A microscopically small helical microrobot offers great promise in the minimally-invasive removal of these clots. The system integrates several modules to control the motion of the helical microrobots, localize the microrobot using ultrasound feedback, and analyze the volume and composition of the clot during interaction with the microrobot.


This text is from introduction of the article.

Advanced Sensing Systems on a Mobile Robot: Design, Construction and Measurements

Patrick Kapita Muemba, Simon Kidiamboko Guwa Gua Band, Aime Lay-Ekuakille, and Nicola Ivan Giannoccaro



In this paper, the authors describe the construction and characterization of a low-cost ultrasonic sensing system for obstacle avoidance on a mobile robot. In some locations and in certain conditions where electronic components are not readily available and not affordable, it is more advantageous to design an obstacle sensing system with a single sensor (e.g., HC-SR04) to reduce the construction cost. They use only one sensor, mounted on a servo on the front of a mobile robot that scans and detects obstacles within the interval from 15° to 165° according to our design, to allow the estimation of the distance of currently detected obstacles with the help of a fuzzy rules set. The embedded fuzzy algorithm will select what obstacles should be avoided to perform collision-free navigation. A microcontroller with an Arduino bootloader was used to perform calculations and control the sensor (HC-SR04) and actuator (SG90 mini gear). The robot has two independent wheels, driven by geared PM dc motors, via the H driver L928N. The ultrasonic sensing system accuracy can be improved by considering ambient temperature in sound speed computation.


This text is from the conclusion of the article. 

Experimentally Driven Demystification of System Identification for Nonlinear Mechanical Systems

Mark Vaes, Yves Rolain, Johan Pattyn and Gerd Vandersteen


This paper presents an overview of the portion of the real-time simulation laboratory of the Institute for Automation of Complex Power Systems at RWTH Aachen University, dedicated to the testing of instrumentation, measurement and monitoring applications. Its key feature is the ability to test monitoring systems and complex monitoring methods as integrated systems as well as a set of individual components. This is made possible by testing platforms that accommodate a mix of interoperable real and real-time simulated components and include communications, databases, and protocols that are representative of the field deployment of the monitoring system.

This text is from the introduction of the article. 

A New Lost Cost Power Line Communication Solution for Smart Grid Monitoring and Management 

Giovanni Artale, Antonio Cataliotti, Valentina Cosentino, Dario Di Cara, Riccardo Fiorelli, Salvatore Guaina, Nicola Panzavecchia, and Giovanni Tine


Modern smart grids require the improvement of measurement and communication infrastructures of distribution networks, at both medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) levels. Acquired network data include typical electrical network quantities and status variables and also environmental and other parameters. Such data must be exchanged between the different players of the smart grid. The authors have patented an innovative power line communication (PLC) coupler solution, which is based on the exploitation of capacitive dividers of voltage detecting systems (VDS). The developed solution includes a proper interface circuit between the PLC transceiver and the VDS socket to transmit/ receive the PLC signal to/from the MV network. The proposed PLC coupling solution and some experimental on-field tests are described in the paper.


This text is from the introduction of the article. 

Length Measurements in Ancient Greece: Human Standards in the Golden Age of the Olympic Games

Luca Parvis


Standards are quickly moving towards quantum metrology and provide extremely low uncertainties, which let people perform highly accurate measurements. Yet in the golden age of the early Olympic Games, most standards were based on human elements and were limited by their poor reproducibility. This paper discusses the old standards of length, their differences between cultures and places, their large uncertainty and, notwithstanding this, their great importance in the natural evolution of humanity.

This text is from the introduction of the article.



Basic Metrology

The Last Measurement of the Speed of Light

Richard Davis


Measuring the speed of light, and ultimately using this speed to define the meter per second in the International System of Units (SI), has much to teach us about basic metrology. These lessons will gain new relevance later this year if the revised (SI) gains final approval, as expected. The history culminating in the last measurement of the speed of light is reviewed.


This text is from the column. 

Life After Graduation

Africa- Where Metrology Began

Erik Timpson


This month’s column introduces the new columnist for Life After Graduation, Erik Timpson. In his first installment, the author introduces the concept of a FabLab.  Using a local space as an example, he enthusiastically discusses the important role in being “maker spaces” for innovators.  He encourages readers to “(1) find a fab lab by you, (2) make a cool instrument or measurement, and (3) write about it … to be included in the next issue.”

This text is from the conclusion of the column. 

Future Trends in I&M

The Need for Standardization in Instrumentation and Measurement 

Santiago Barcón


Besides a gradual shift to renewables, the main opportunity lies in Energy Efficiency: do the same with less energy. Advances have been made but a long road is still ahead, and reductions of up to 25% are possible in existing buildings and homes. In some cases even more can be achieved. The advances in electronics allow us to measure in an economical way even the smallest loads, to integrate them, analyze and decide– with the adequate algorithms– the actions to be taken.

This text is from the body of the column.

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