Article Summaries

IAMM Sensor City—A Global Innovation Hub for Sensor Technology

Roberto Ferrero, Elizabeth Beattie, and Joanne Phoenix


The fourth industrial revolution technologies, including Big Data, autonomous systems, systems integration and cloud computing, are transforming modern manufacturing by enabling the generation and analysis of digital data that supports the development of smarter products, processes and supply chains. Innovation in this sector is also happening at a very fast pace. Strengthening the link between academia and industry is therefore essential to guarantee that academic research in instrumentation and measurement gets rapidly to the market, and at the same time, innovative ideas from industry get the necessary academic support. This is where Sensor City can help.

This text is from introduction of the article.

Academic FabLabs for Industry 4.0:  Experience at University of Naples Frederico II

Leopoldo Angrisani, Pasquale Arpaia, Francesco  Bonavolonta, and Rosario Schiano Lo Moriello


The birth and the first steps of the HT FabLab founded at the University of Naples Federico II aim to valorize an innovative teaching experience inspired by business, the makers movement. In particular, students continue to take advantage of the skills acquired to engage in a series of multidisciplinary projects, suggested by the teachers, with applied research features and achievable by the innovative techniques of digital craft-work in IoT, Industry 4.0, biomedicine, and so on. Hence, the need to team up, and to acquire spaces/workshops and materials for extracurricular activities to usefully complement theoretical teaching, was realized by HT FabLab. The initiative met the favor of DIETI, the PBS School, and the University. These institutions see HT FabLab as an opportunity to transform potential spin-off ideas and projects, attract local industry partners in need of profound transformation, and seek innovate technology during the economic crisis, and above all, provide enrichment of the training offered to engineering students.

This text is from the conclusion of the article. 

Instrumentation and Measurement Testing in the Real-Tim Lab for Automation of Complex Power Systems

Ferdinanda Ponci, Abhinav Sadu, Robert Uhl, Markus Mirz, Andrea Angioni, and Antonello Monti


This paper presents an overview of the portion of the real-time simulation laboratory of the Institute for Automation of Complex Power Systems at RWTH Aachen University, dedicated to the testing of instrumentation, measurement and monitoring applications. Its key feature is the ability to test monitoring systems and complex monitoring methods as integrated systems as well as a set of individual components. This is made possible by testing platforms that accommodate a mix of interoperable real and real-time simulated components and include communications, databases, and protocols that are representative of the field deployment of the monitoring system.

This text is from the introduction of the article. 

A 3D-Printable Instrument to Improve Force Vector Measurement in CPR Training

Gries F. M. Silva-Calpa, Carina C. Teixeira, Felipe C. Marx, Jauvane C. de Oliveira, and Shervin Shirmohammadi


In this paper, the authors present a practical, portable and low-cost CPR system to measure force vector and frequency of CPR compressions. They built a 3D component to methodically attach a standard Little Anne CPR training manikin to a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. CPR compressions performed on the manikin are plotted by our software (Windows or Android version). This system shows, in real time, the performance of the user related to the force, angle and frequency of the CPR compressions, allowing self-evaluation for the improvement of CPR practice. The authors highlight that, unlike other CPR training systems, this system measures the angle at which the compressions are performed, which is an essential measure in a real CPR situation. Moreover, this system shows the user's objectively measured performance and removes the possible subjectivity of the human trainer.

This text is from the introduction of the article. 

Internet of Things for Smart Ports: Technologies and Challenges

Yongsheng Yang, Meisu Zhong, Haiqing Yao, Fang Yu, Xiuwen Fu, and Octavian Postolache


Nowadays, the Internet of Things can be considered an important technological revolution related to smart cities, smart homes, smart factories and smart ports implementations. As the presence of smart sensing systems in ports becomes a reality, different operation areas are working today in automatic mode. This paper highlights the main requirements and the key ideas for each ports' sensing solution and also the challenges related to the calibration and testing of distributed sensing systems associated with the main equipment that compose the world largest ports such as quayside cranes, automated guided vehicles for container handling and yard cranes. Details of the architecture and operations and sensing systems for smart ports are described.  Communication standards for smart ports are discussed, and smart ports implementation examples regarding structural health monitoring are considered.

This summary includes text from the article. 

Length Measurements in Ancient Greece: Human Standards in the Golden Age of the Olympic Games

Luca Parvis


Standards are quickly moving towards quantum metrology and provide extremely low uncertainties, which let people perform highly accurate measurements. Yet in the golden age of the early Olympic Games, most standards were based on human elements and were limited by their poor reproducibility. This paper discusses the old standards of length, their differences between cultures and places, their large uncertainty and, notwithstanding this, their great importance in the natural evolution of humanity.

This text is from the introduction of the article.

Making Sleep Study Instrumentation More Unobtrusive

Jaspal Singh and R. K. Sharma


Insights into the complex behavior of physiological systems, applications of advanced computational techniques, shrinking electronics and advanced wireless technologies are being applied to sleep study instrumentation. After a short review of standard polysomnography, this article takes a look at the research directions that promise a new era of patient-friendly sleep study instrumentation.

This text is from introduction of the article. 



Basic Metrology

Zeroth Laws – Hiding in Plain Sight

Richard Davis


The most famous and widely accepted “zeroth law” is the zeroth law of thermodynamics. The first and second laws were already in place, but a preliminary law was seen to be missing, perhaps because it was too “obvious.” The missing piece postulates the existence of temperature and provides the rationale behind instruments (thermometers) that can measure temperature. It is this metrological oversight that makes this zeroth law and others like it a fit subject for a column on basic metrology.

This text is from the column. 

Life After Graduation

Succession to a Maker

Erik Timpson


This month’s column introduces the new columnist for Life After Graduation, Erik Timpson. In his first installment, the author introduces the concept of a FabLab.  Using a local space as an example, he enthusiastically discusses the important role in being “maker spaces” for innovators.  He encourages readers to “(1) find a fab lab by you, (2) make a cool instrument or measurement, and (3) write about it … to be included in the next issue.”

This text is from the conclusion of the column. 

Future Trends in I&M


I&M in Energy Efficiency

Santiago Barcón

Besides a gradual shift to renewables, the main opportunity lies in Energy Efficiency: do the same with less energy. Advances have been made but a long road is still ahead, and reductions of up to 25% are possible in existing buildings and homes. In some cases even more can be achieved. The advances in electronics allow us to measure in an economical way even the smallest loads, to integrate them, analyze and decide– with the adequate algorithms– the actions to be taken.

This text is from the body of the column.

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