Article Summaries

DNA Profiling: A Metrological and Signal Processing Perspective

 (Summary)

Alessandro Ferrero


Metrology can give an important contribution, as shown in this article, to both the correct formulation of the problem and its solution. Most of the fundamental points raised in a recent government report are well-known concepts in metrology and may have a satisfactory solution if treated from a correct metrological perspective. Most importantly, the presence of doubt is a familiar concept in metrology, where the doubt about the validity of the results of measurements is considered and quantified in terms of measurement uncertainty. This same concept is extremely helpful in quantifying the doubt of a wrong decision when the decision is based on measurement results, such as DNA analysis. Therefore, the role of metrologists is extremely important in DNA profiling, too, and should be promoted by the I&M community.

This summary includes text from the conclusion of the article.

A Perspective on Bitemark Analysis: From Empiricism
to Scientific Rationality

(Summary)
Charles Georget and Aimé Conigliaro

Among the numerous missions realized by the forensic odontologist, the morpho-analysis of a human bitemark, both on an alive or dead victim, plays a relevant role since the identification not only affects the victim but also concerns the perpetrator. For over a century, many experts have been working to make bitemark analysis more reliable and improve dental impression recording. Despite these efforts, the most used methods of bitemark analysis are not effectively compliant with any scientific rule. Currently, proofs obtained by bite mark analysis are obtained by experimental activity, but it is fundamental and necessary for these kinds of methods that such evidence has its roots in scientific data with sufficient technical knowledge to be validated by courts.
This summary includes text from the article.

Metrology Applied to Forensic Pattern Evidence Domains – A Call for More Forensic Science Metrology Principles

(Summary)

Henry Swofford and Ted Vosk

Over the last decade, the forensic science community has come under fire for the lack of research
demonstrating the validity of conclusions within forensic pattern evidence domains such as fingerprints, firearms, handwriting, and other feature-based comparisons. Although the forensic science community has made a general call for research, there is little guidance for exactly what the issue is and how the metrology community may contribute. This article provides an introduction to forensic science and a general overview of the current examination
methodology followed by many forensic pattern evidence domains. The authors highlight specific research gaps where the forensic sciences could benefit by the application of metrological principles as well as notable ways in which the metrology community may contribute.


This summary includes text from introduction of the article.

Analog-to-Information Converters in the Wideband RF Measurement
for Aerospace Applications: Current Situation and Perspectives

 (Summary)

Pasquale Daponte, Luca De Vito, Sergio Rapuano, and Ioan Tudosa

This paper aims at briefly summarizing the existing situation and the future trends in the field of wideband RF measurement by means of AICs in aerospace applications. First, several challenges in aerospace RF signal acquisition and measurement are briefly analyzed by looking at existing instrumentation characteristics. Then, a short overview regarding the current trends in modern design of wideband RF measurement instruments is presented. Finally, the authors present a comprehensive investigation of the advantages and disadvantages of the use of AIC as a potential candidate for wideband RF spectrum acquisition.


This summary includes text from introduction of the article.

Note: In print version of the article, there is an error in the author bio for Ioan Tudosa. The correct email address for Ioan Tudosa is ioan.tudosa@gmail.com. We sincerely apologize for the error.

Photonics Enhanced Sensors for Food Monitoring: Part 2

(Summary)

Wendy Meulebroeck, Hugo Thienpont, and Heidi Ottevaere

This paper is the second part in a series of three in which the authors show how photonics based food sensors can contribute to the quality control and safety of solid and liquid food products. In the first part, the authors described the theoretical aspects of the various physical phenomena that can occur during food screening, together with their related measurement set-ups, data-processing steps and the concerned sensing platforms. This paper demonstrates the usefulness of optical screening methods to identify foreign bodies in solid food streams and defines four concrete applications together with the corresponding optical measures.

This summary includes text from introduction of the article.

Development and Selection of Balance Sensing Devices

(Summary)

Octavian A. Postolache and Gabriela B. Postolache

Balance is required for many functional activities of daily life. Qualitative or quantitative balance assessment is frequently used in the diagnosis of neuro-muscular diseases, in treatment or therapy monitoring, and for performance assessment in sports training programs. In the last years, various technologies were developed for balance or posture analysis with the main focus on sensors and reliability of the measurements. In this paper, the authors discuss the questions related with the development of a balance assessment system, which might facilitate the design or selection of components for balance sensing and training.
This summary includes text from introduction of the article.

Columns

Basic Metrology

(Summary)

 Science and Precision Measurement
Richard Davis
Historically, increased measurement accuracy may lead to a more profound, perhaps even revolutionary, understanding of the underlying science. The history of this phenomenon was encapsulated in a 1932 essay called “The Romance of the Next Decimal Place” by F.K. Richtmyer. Does science still progress this way? The serendipitous discovery in 1965 of the Cosmic Microwave Background provides an interesting case study.

This summary was written by the author.

Future Trends in I&M
(Summary)

Merging Theoretical Concepts with Practice
Irina Florea

In her inaugural column, the author introduces herself and her professional perspectives, reflecting back to her training as a master’s student: “I focused on uncertainties and power distribution measurements. I realized then how important it is to determine the uncertainty budget for any application. Years after, having worked in industry, I have combined the theoretical things that I learned as a student with real life problems. Measuring some parameters for engine testing is important, but analyzing and knowing how to use measurements is crucial. Not considering all uncertainties, sensors, and transducers’ specifications can lead to a wrong point of view.”

This summary includes text from the article.
 

ATI Industrial Automation

MegaPhase

Trimble Navigation Limited

Astronics Test Systems

Marvin Test Systems

Mini-Circuits

Omega Engineering, Inc.

Virginia Panel Corporation

Robotdalen

Astronics DME Corportation

Pickering Interfaces Inc.

RADX Technologies, Inc.

Zurich Instruments AG

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